Reference of this publication:
F. Malm, C. Große: Proof of efficiency: Examination of concrete beams with self-healing properties by non-destructive testing methods. Fifth International Conference on Self-Healing Materials (ICSHM2015), Durham, NC (U.S.A.), 2015


Development and Testing

F. Malm 1, C.U. Grosse 1


1 Chair of Non-destructive Testing, Technische Universität München, Baumbachstr. 7, 81245 München, Germany – e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


The research and design activity of self-healing mechanism in terms of concrete is constantly increasing [1, 2, 3]. Apart from the basic principle of self-healing concrete to show waterproof-concepts to avoid reinforcement corrosion, thus to prolong the lifetime, a consideration and characterization of the proposed healing method is necessary for each relevant practical case study. In a large research project founded by the European Commission different healing agent concepts like bacteria, hydrogels and (bio-) polymers for varying application fields are in development. To commercialize and achieve market acceptance a proof of efficiency of the healing process is required. To monitor and verify the healing effect of construction elements (e.g. large beams, retaining walls, basements) in-situ non-destructive testing methods have obvious advantages in opposition to destructive methods. Since the start of the project in 2013 first successful results of non-destructive testing methods have been obtained in a laboratory scale [4]. The interaction between crack formation and capsule breakage is one essential factor for the efficiency of crack repair. Therefore crack-controlled three-point bending experiments, monitored by acoustic emission technique, have been conducted. Applied ultrasonic measurements for monitoring the curing process provided the evidence of crack sealing. Furthermore, these insights can be used for modeling (delivery of material data like elastic moduli, etc.) and, on the other for characterization of material properties of the healing agents (stability, hardening, etc.).



[1] Van Tittelboom, K.; De Belie, N. (2013) Self-Healing in Cementitious Materials—A Review. Materials (2013), 6, 2182-2217

[2] Escobar, M.; Vago, S.; Vázquez, A. (2013) Self-healing mortars based on hollow glass tubes and epoxy–amine systems. Composites: Part B 55 (2013) 203–207

[3] Gardner, D.; Jefferson, A.; Hoffman, A.; Lark, R. (2014) Simulation of the capillary flow of an autonomic healing agent in discrete cracks in cementitious materials. Cement and Concrete Research 58 (2014), 35–44

[4] Malm, F.; Grosse, C. U. (2014) Examination of reinforced concrete beams with self-healing properties by acoustic emission analyses. 31st Conference of the European Working Group on Acoustic Emission (EWGAE), Dresden (2014)


This project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme
for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 309451.
Friday the 16th. © 2013 Universiteit Gent.